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People Detail

Faculty Biography For:

Preethi Gunaratne
Associate Professor
Ph.D., Cornell University

Biology and Biochemistry Department
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77204-5001

Office: SERC 4028
Phone: (713) 743-2686
phgunaratne@uh.edu


Our primary research interests are directed at understanding the role of microRNAs in regulating the transcriptome and epigenome of cancer cells and stem cells with the long term goal of identifying microRNA-gene pairs that are most critical for driving biology and disease. MicroRNAs are recently discovered, small 22 nucleotide transcripts that play a critical role in silencing patterns of gene expression. A single microRNA can silence literally hundreds of genes across diverse signaling pathways. Therefore individual microRNAs have exceptional biologic power to potentially influence gene networks that drive specific cellular contexts, biological processes and disease genomes. The advent of high throughput genetic technologies has unleashed an unparalleled wealth of insight into human biology and disease. To rapidly translate the findings from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project we have developed and used a functional genomics platform that combines Next Generation Sequencing and bioinformatics tools to sequence over one thousand samples of normal and disease tissues. Using this platform we have created a unique database that comprehensively describes patterns of microRNA and gene expression in the context of complex diseases such as cancer, asthma, COPD/emphysema, avian flu infected chicken lungs and schizophrenia. Using a number of analytical methods including SigTerms, Independent component analysis (ICA) and surface solutions we have delineated genetic signatures that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers for these diseases. We have developed and used a novel gold nanoparticle mediated microRNA delivery method to screen a panel of putative tumor suppressor miRNAs from our database. From this work we have 1) established one of the first comprehensive platforms to rationally define genetic signatures that accurately stratify and predict responsive and non-responsive host genomes to externally administered miRNAs; and 2) identified a number of strong tumor suppressors for ovarian, colorectal, kidney cancer as well as multiple myeloma and neuroblastoma. Clinical medicine is now undergoing a fundamental shift in its therapeutic paradigm, as disease management evolves from empiric one size fits all" treatments to personalized strategies where targeted therapies can be tailored to the molecular make up of each individuals disease. Our long-term goal is to develop a functional genomics platform capable of rapidly customizing therapeutic strategies to suit individual genomes. Ultimately, we hope to define a paradigm in which miRNAs could be therapeutically applied in the context of personalized medicine.

Wang Y, Brahmakshatriya V, Lupiani B, Reddy SM, Soibam B, Benham AL, Gunaratne P, Liu HC, Trakooljul M, Ing N, Okimoto R, Zhou H. Integrated analysis of microRNA expression and mRNA transcriptome in lungs of avian influenza virus infected broilers. BMC Genomics. 2012 Jun 22;13(1):278. PMID: 22726614

Donehower LA, Creighton CJ, Schultz N, Shinbrot E, Chang K, Gunaratne PH, Muzny D, Sander C, Hamilton SR, Gibbs RA, Wheeler D. MLH1-Silenced and Non-Silenced Subgroups of Hypermutated Colorectal Carcinomas Have Distinct Mutational Landscapes. J Pathol. 2012 Aug 16. doi: 10.1002/path.4087. PMID: 22899370

Cancer Genome Atlas Network. Comprehensive molecular characterization of human colon and rectal cancer. Nature. 2012 Jul 18;487(7407):330-7. doi: 10.1038/nature11252. PMID: 22810696

Hawkins SM, Andreu-Vieyra CV, Kim TH, Jeong JW, Hodgson MC, Chen R, Creighton CJ, Lydon JP, Gunaratne PH, Demayo FJ, Matzuk MM. Dysregulation of Uterine Signaling Pathways in Progesterone Receptor-Cre Knockout of Dicer. Mol Endocrinol. 2012 Jul 13. PMID: 22798293

Plante I, Plé H, Landry P, Gunaratne PH, Provost P. Modulation of microRNA Activity by Semi-microRNAs. Front Genet. 2012;3:99. Epub 2012 Jun 4. PMID: 22675332

Chad J. Creighton#, Anadulce Hernandez-Herrera, Anders Jacobsen, Douglas A. Levine, Parminder Mankoo, Nikolaus Schultz, Ying Du, Yiqun Zhang, Erik Larsson, Robert Sheridan, Weimin Xiao, Paul T. Spellman, Gad Getz, David A. Wheeler, Charles M. Perou, Richard A. Gibbs, Chris Sander, D. Neil Hayes, Preethi H. Gunaratne# and The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. Integrated analyses of microRNAs demonstrate their widespread influence on gene expression in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. PLoS One. 2012 PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e34546. Epub 2012 Mar 29. PMID: 22479643. #Corresponding Authors.

Luo Z, Xu X, Gu P, Lonard D, Gunaratne PH, Cooney AJ, Azencott R. miRNA regulatory circuits in ES cells differentiation: a chemical kinetics modeling approach. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e23263. Epub 2011 Oct 19. PMID: 22039400

Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. Integrated genomic analyses of ovarian carcinoma. Nature. 2011 Jun 29;474(7353):609-15. doi: 10.1038/nature10166. PMID: 21720365 Preethi H. Gunaratne*, Ya-Chi Lin*, Ashley Benham, Jenny Drnevich, Sarah E. London, Cristian Coarfa, Jayantha B. Tennakoon, Jong Kim1, Aleksandar Milosavljevic, Michael Watson, David F. Clayton. Song exposure alters the profile of microRNAs and target genes in the zebra finch auditory forebrain. BMC Genomics. 2011 May 31;12(1):277. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 21627805 Luo Z, Xu X, Gu P, Lonard D, Gunaratne PH, Cooney AJ, Azencott R. miRNA regulatory circuits in ES cells differentiation: a chemical kinetics modeling approach. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e23263. Epub 2011 Oct 19. PMID: 22039400

Michael A. Tessel, Ashley L. Benham, Nancy L. Krett, Steven T. Rosen*, Preethi H. Gunaratne*. Role for MicroRNAs in Regulating Glucocorticoid Response and Resistance in Multiple Myeloma. Horm Cancer. 2011 Jun;2(3):182-9. PMID: 21761344

Shohet JM, Ghosh R, Coarfa C, Ludwig A, Benham AL, Chen Z, Patterson DM, Barbieri E, Mestdagh P, Sikorski D, Milosavljevic A, Kim ES, Gunaratne PH#. A Genome-wide Search for MYCN Binding Sites Reveals Both New Oncogenic and Tumor Suppressor MicroRNAs Associated with Aggressive Neuroblastoma. Cancer Res. 2011 Apr 15. PMID: 214986339. #Co-corresponding Author

Hawkins SM, Creighton CJ, Han DY, Zariff A, Anderson ML, Gunaratne PH, Matzuk MM. Functional MicroRNA Involved in Endometriosis. Mol Endocrinol. 2011 Mar 24. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21436257

Lisa K. Mullany, Heng-Yu Fan, Zhilin Liu, Lisa D. White, Alexander Marshall, Preethi Gunaratne, Matthew Anderson, Chad Creighton and JoAnne Richards. Molecular characterization of a new mouse model of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma relevant for understanding the etiology and mechanisms of in the human disease. Oncogene. 2011 Mar 21. PMID: 21423204

Lixin Zhang, Peggy S. Sullivan, Preethi Gunaratne and Dario Marchetti. MicroRNA-1258 Suppresses Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis by Targeting Heparanase. Cancer Res. 2011 Feb 1;71(3):645-54. Epub 2011 Jan 25. PMID: 21266359

Buchold GM, Coarfa C, Kim J, Milosavljevic A, Gunaratne PH, Matzuk MM. Analysis of MicroRNA Expression in the Prepubertal Testis. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 29;5(12):e15317.PMID: 21206922.

G. H. Gunaratne, P. H. Gunaratne, L. Seeman, and A. Torok. "Using Effective Subnetworks to Predict Selected Properties of Gene Networks," - PLoS one. 2010 Oct 8;5(10):e13080. PMID: 2094902.

Dejosez M, Levine SS, Frampton GM, Whyte WA, Stratton SA, Barton MC, Gunaratne PH, Young RA, Zwaka TP. Ronin/Hcf-1 binds to a hyperconserved enhancer element and regulates genes involved in the growth of embryonic stem cells. Genes Dev. 2010 Jul 15;24(14):1479-84. PMID: 20581084

Polikepahad S, Knight JM, Naghavi AO, Oplt T, Creighton CJ, Shaw C, Benham AL, Kim J, Soibam B, Harris RA, Coarfa C, Zariff A, Milosavljevic A, Batts LM, Kheradmand F, Gunaratne PH#, Corry DB. Pro-inflammatory role for let-7 microRNAs in experimental asthma. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jul 14. PMID: 20630862 #(Co-corresponding Author)

Warren WC, Clayton DF, Ellegren H, Arnold AP, Hillier LW, Künstner A, Searle S, White S, Vilella AJ, Fairley S, Heger A, Kong L, Ponting CP, Jarvis ED, Mello CV, Minx P, Lovell P, Velho TA, Ferris M, Balakrishnan CN, Sinha S, Blatti C, London SE, Li Y, Lin YC, George J, Sweedler J, Southey B, Gunaratne P, Watson M, Nam K, Backström N, Smeds L, Nabholz B, Itoh Y, Whitney O, Pfenning AR, Howard J, Völker M, Skinner BM, Griffin DK, Ye L, McLaren WM, Flicek P, Quesada V, Velasco G, Lopez-Otin C, Puente XS, Olender T, Lancet D, Smit AF, Hubley R, Konkel MK, Walker JA, Batzer MA, Gu W, Pollock DD, Chen L, Cheng Z, Eichler EE, Stapley J, Slate J, Ekblom R, Birkhead T, Burke T, Burt D, Scharff C, Adam I, Richard H, Sultan M, Soldatov A, Lehrach H, Edwards SV, Yang SP, Li X, Graves T, Fulton L, Nelson J, Chinwalla A, Hou S, Mardis ER, Wilson RK. The genome of a songbird. Nature. 2010 Apr 1;464(7289):757-62.PMID: 20360741

20. Zhu H, Gunaratne PH, Roman GW, Gunaratne GH. A theory for the arrangement of sensory organs in Drosophila. Chaos. 2010 Mar;20(1):013132.PMID: 20370287

Chad J. Creighton*, Ashley L. Benham*, Huifeng Zhu*, Mahjabeen F. Khan, Jeffrey G. Reid, Ankur K. Nagaraja,, Michael D. Fountain Jr., Emuejevoke Olokpa, Derek Han, Lang Ma, Jong Kim, Shannon M. Hawkins, Matthew L. Anderson, Martin M. Matzuk, Preethi H. Gunaratne#. Discovery of novel microRNAs in female reproductive tract using Next Generation Sequencing. PLoS One. 2010 Mar 10;5(3):e9637.PMID: 20224791

Creighton CJ, Fountain MD, Yu Z, Nagaraja AK, Zhu H, Khan M, Olokpa E, Zariff A, Gunaratne PH, Matzuk MM, Anderson ML. Molecular Profiling Uncovers a p53-Associated Role for MicroRNA-31 in Inhibiting the Proliferation of Serous Ovarian Carcinomas and Other Cancers. Cancer Res. 2010 Feb 23. PMID: 20179198

Greene SB, Gunaratne PH, Hammond SM, Rosen JM. A putative role for microRNA-205 in mammary epithelial cell progenitors. J Cell Sci. 2010 Feb 15;123(Pt 4):606-18. PMID: 20103531

Nagaraja AK, Creighton CJ, Yu Z, Zhu H, Gunaratne PH, Reid JG, Olokpa E, Itamochi H, Ueno NT, Hawkins SM, Anderson ML, Matzuk MM. A link between mir-100 and FRAP1/mTOR in clear cell ovarian cancer. Mol Endocrinol. 2010 Feb;24(2):447-63. PMID: 20081105

Wang Y, Brahmakshatriya V, Zhu H, Lupiani B, Reddy SM, Yoon BJ, Gunaratne PH, Kim JH, Benham, AL, Chen R, Wang J, Zhou H. Identification of differentially expressed miRNAs in chicken lung and trachea with avian influenza virus infection by a deep sequencing approach. BMC Genomics. 2009 Nov 5;10:512.PMID: 19891781

27. Mammalian Gene Collection Consortium Program Team. MGC Project Team, Temple G, Gerhard DS, Rasooly R, Feingold EA, Good PJ, Robinson C, Mandich A, Derge JG, Lewis J, Shoaf D, Collins FS, Jang W, Wagner L, Shenmen CM, Misquitta L, Schaefer CF, Buetow KH, Bonner TI, Yankie L, Ward M, Phan L, Astashyn A, Brown G, Farrell C, Hart J, Landrum M, Maidak BL, Murphy M, Murphy T, Rajput B, Riddick L, Webb D, Weber J, Wu W, Pruitt KD, Maglott D, Siepel A, Brejova B, Diekhans M, Harte R, Baertsch R, Kent J, Haussler D, Brent M, Langton L, Comstock CL, Stevens M, Wei C, van Baren MJ, Salehi-Ashtiani K, Murray RR, Ghamsari L, Mello E, Lin C, Pennacchio C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Marsh A, Pardes E, Moore T, Lebeau A, Muratet M, Simmons B, Kloske D, Sieja S, Hudson J, Sethupathy P, Brownstein M, Bhat N, Lazar J, Jacob H, Gruber CE, Smith MR, McPherson J, Garcia AM, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Muzny D, Gibbs RA, Young AC, Bouffard GG, Blakesley RW, Mullikin J, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Hirst M, Zeng T, Tse K, Moksa M, Deng M, Ma K, Mah D, Pang J, Taylor G, Chuah E, Deng A, Fichter K, Go A, Lee S, Wang J, Griffith M, Morin R, Moore RA, Mayo M, Munro S, Wagner S, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Marra MA, Lu S, Yang S, Hartigan J, Graf M, Wagner R, Letovksy S, Pulido JC, Robison K, Esposito D, Hartley J, Wall VE, Hopkins RF, Ohara O, Wiemann S. The Completion of the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2009 Oct 28. PMID: 19767417

Ma L, Buchold GM, Greenbaum MP, Roy A, Burns KH, Zhu H, Han DY, Harris RA, Coarfa C, Gunaratne PH, Yan W, Matzuk MM. GASZ is essential for male meiosis and suppression of retrotransposon expression in the male germline.2009. PLoS Genet. Sep;5(9):e1000635. PMID: 19730684

Wang X, Sutton VR, Eble TN, Lewis RA, Gunaratne P, Patel A, Van den Veyver IB. A genome-wide screen for copy number alterations in Aicardi syndrome. 2009. Am J Med Genet A. 49A(10):2113-21.PMID: 19760649

Dolores López-Terrada*, Preethi Gunaratne*, Adekunle M. Adesina, Joseph Pulliam, David M. Hoang, Yummy Nguyen, Toni-Ann Mistretta, Judith Margolin, Milton J. Finegold. Histologic subtypes of hepatoblastoma are characterized by differential canonical Wnt and Notch pathway activation in arrested DLK precursors. 2009. Hum Pathol. Jun;40(6):783-94. *Equal Contribution = Co-first Authors

Adesina AM, Lopez-Terrada D, Wong KK, Gunaratne P, Nguyen Y, Pulliam J, Margolin J, Finegold MJ. Gene expression profiling reveals signatures characterizing histologic subtypes of hepatoblastoma and global deregulation in cell growth and survival pathways. 2009. Hum Pathol. Jun;40(6):843-53. PMID: 19200578

Jeffrey G. Reid, Ankur K. Nagaraja , Francis C. Lynn , Rafal B. Drabek , Donna M. Muzny, Chad A. Shaw, Michelle K. Weiss, Arash O. Naghavi, Mahjabeen Khan, Huifeng Zhu, Jayantha Tennakoon, Gemunu H. Gunaratne, David B. Corry, Jonathan Miller, Michael S. German, Richard A. Gibbs, Martin M. Matzuk and Preethi H. Gunaratne#. Mouse let-7 miRNA populations exhibit RNA editing that is constrained in the 5-seed/cleavage/anchor regions and stabilize predicted mmu-let-7a:mRNA duplexes. 2008. Genome Research 18:1571-81. PMID: 18614752 #Corresponding Author

Peili Gu, Jeffrey G. Reid, Xiaolian Gao, Chad A. Shaw, Chad Creighton, Peter L. Tran, Xiaochuan Zhou, Rafal Drabek, David L. Steffen, David Hoang, Michelle K. Weiss, Arash O. Naghavi, Jad El-daye, Mahjabeen F. Kahn, Glen B. Legge, David Wheeler, Richard A. Gibbs, Jonathan Miller, Austin J. Cooney, Preethi H. Gunaratne#. Novel MicroRNA Candidates and miRNA-mRNA Pairs in Embryonic Stem (ES) Cells. 2008. PLoS One. Jul 2;3(7):e2548. PMID: 18648548 #Corresponding Author

Nagaraja AK, Andreu-Vieyra C, Franco HL, Ma L, Chen R, Han DY, Zhu H, Agno JE, Gunaratne PH, DeMayo FJ, Matzuk MM. Deletion of Dicer in somatic cells of the female reproductive tract causes sterility. 2008. Mol Endocrinol. 22:2336-52. PMID: 18687735

Chad J. Creighton, Ankur K. Nagaraja, Samir M. Hanash, Martin M. Matzuk, Preethi H. Gunaratne. A bioinformatics tool for linking gene expression profiling results with public databases of microRNA target predictions. 2008. RNA. 14 (11):2290-6. PMID: 18812437

Adesina AM, Nguyen Y, Guanaratne P, Pulliam J, Lopez-Terrada D, Margolin J, Finegold M. FOXG1 is overexpressed in hepatoblastoma. Hum Pathol. 38(3):400-9 (2007). Note: Gunaratne P. is currently mis-spelled in PubMed as Guanaratne P

Muzny DM, Scherer SE, Kaul R, Wang J, Yu J, Sudbrak R, Buhay CJ, Chen R, Cree A, Ding Y, Dugan-Rocha S, Gill R, Gunaratne P, Harris RA, Hawes AC, Hernandez J, Hodgson AV, Hume J, Jackson A, Khan ZM, Kovar-Smith C, Lewis LR, Lozado RJ, Metzker ML, Milosavljevic A, Miner GR, Morgan MB, Nazareth LV, Scott G, Sodergren E, Song XZ, Steffen D, Wei S, Wheeler DA, Wright MW, Worley KC, Yuan Y, Zhang Z, Adams CQ, Ansari-Lari MA, Ayele M, Brown MJ, Chen G, Chen Z, Clendenning J, Clerc-Blankenburg KP, Chen R, Chen Z, Davis C, Delgado O, Dinh HH, Dong W, Draper H, Ernst S, Fu G, Gonzalez-Garay ML, Garcia DK, Gillett W, Gu J, Hao B, Haugen E, Havlak P, He X, Hennig S, Hu S, Huang W, Jackson LR, Jacob LS, Kelly SH, Kube M, Levy R, Li Z, Liu B, Liu J, Liu W, Lu J, Maheshwari M, Nguyen BV, Okwuonu GO, Palmeiri A, Pasternak S, Perez LM, Phelps KA, Plopper FJ, Qiang B, Raymond C, Rodriguez R, Saenphimmachak C, Santibanez J, Shen H, Shen Y, Subramanian S, Tabor PE, Verduzco D, Waldron L, Wang J, Wang J, Wang Q, Williams GA, Wong GK, Yao Z, Zhang J, Zhang X, Zhao G, Zhou J, Zhou Y, Nelson D, Lehrach H, Reinhardt R, Naylor SL, Yang H, Olson M, Weinstock G, Gibbs RA. The DNA sequence, annotation and analysis of human chromosome 3. Nature. 2006 Apr 27;440(7088):1194-8.

Scherer SE, Muzny DM, Buhay CJ, Chen R, Cree A, Ding Y, Dugan-Rocha S, Gill R, Gunaratne P, Harris RA, Hawes AC, Hernandez J, Hodgson AV, Hume J, Jackson A, Khan ZM, Kovar-Smith C, Lewis LR, Lozado RJ, Metzker ML, Milosavljevic A, Miner GR, Montgomery KT, Morgan MB, Nazareth LV, Scott G, Sodergren E, Song XZ, Steffen D, Lovering RC, Wheeler DA, Worley KC, Yuan Y, Zhang Z, Adams CQ, Ansari-Lari MA, Ayele M, Brown MJ, Chen G, Chen Z, Clerc-Blankenburg KP, Davis C, Delgado O, Dinh HH, Draper H, Gonzalez-Garay ML, Havlak P, Jackson LR, Jacob LS, Kelly SH, Li L, Li Z, Liu J, Liu W, Lu J, Maheshwari M, Nguyen BV, Okwuonu GO, Pasternak S, Perez LM, Plopper FJ, Santibanez J, Shen H, Tabor PE, Verduzco D, Waldron L, Wang Q, Williams GA, Zhang J, Zhou J, Allen CC, Amin AG, Anyalebechi V, Bailey M, Barbaria JA, Bimage KE, Bryant NP, Burch PE, Burkett CE, Burrell KL, Calderon E, Cardenas V, Carter K, Casias K, Cavazos I, Cavazos SR, Ceasar H, Chacko J, Chan SN, Chavez D, Christopoulos C, Chu J, Cockrell R, Cox CD, Dang M, Dathorne SR, David R, Davis CM, Davy-Carroll L, Deshazo DR, Donlin JE, D'Souza L, Eaves KA, Egan A, Emery-Cohen AJ, Escotto M, Flagg N, Forbes LD, Gabisi AM, Garza M, Hamilton C, Henderson N, Hernandez O, Hines S, Hogues ME, Huang M, Idlebird DG, Johnson R, Jolivet A, Jones S, Kagan R, King LM, Leal B, Lebow H, Lee S, LeVan JM, Lewis LC, London P, Lorensuhewa LM, Loulseged H, Lovett DA, Lucier A, Lucier RL, Ma J, Madu RC, Mapua P, Martindale AD, Martinez E, Massey E, Mawhiney S, Meador MG, Mendez S, Mercado C, Mercado IC, Merritt CE, Miner ZL, Minja E, Mitchell T, Mohabbat F, Mohabbat K, Montgomery B, Moore N, Morris S, Munidasa M, Ngo RN, Nguyen NB, Nickerson E, Nwaokelemeh OO, Nwokenkwo S, Obregon M, Oguh M, Oragunye N, Oviedo RJ, Parish BJ, Parker DN, Parrish J, Parks KL, Paul HA, Payton BA, Perez A, Perrin W, Pickens A, Primus EL, Pu LL, Puazo M, Quiles MM, Quiroz JB, Rabata D, Reeves K, Ruiz SJ, Shao H, Sisson I, Sonaike T, Sorelle RP, Sutton AE, Svatek AF, Svetz LA, Tamerisa KS, Taylor TR, Teague B, Thomas N, Thorn RD, Trejos ZY, Trevino BK, Ukegbu ON, Urban JB, Vasquez LI, Vera VA, Villasana DM, Wang L, Ward-Moore S, Warren JT, Wei X, White F, Williamson AL, Wleczyk R, Wooden HS, Wooden SH, Yen J, Yoon L, Yoon V, Zorrilla SE, Nelson D, Kucherlapati R, Weinstock G, Gibbs RA; Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center Sequence Production Team. The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12. Nature. 2006 Mar 16;440(7082):346-51.

Bowman TV, McCooey AJ, Merchant AA, Ramos CA, Fonseca P, Poindexter A, Bradfute SB, Oliveira DM, Green R, Zheng Y, Jackson KA, Chambers SM, McKinney-Freeman SL, Norwood KG, Darlington G, Gunaratne PH, Steffen D, Goodell MA. Differential mRNA Processing in Hematopoietic Stem Cells. Stem Cells. 2005 Dec 22.

Al-Lamki Z, Wali YA, Wasifuddin SM, Zachariah M, Al-Mjeni R, Li CP, Muralitharan S, Al Kharusi, Gunaratne P, Peterson L, Gibbs R, JF Margolin, and Gingras MC. Identification of prognosis markers in pediatric high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatric Hematology Oncology. 22(7): 2005.

Ross MT, Grafham DV, Coffey AJ, Scherer S, McLay K, Muzny D, Platzer M, Howell GR, Burrows C, Bird CP, Frankish A, Lovell FL, Howe KL, Ashurst JL, Fulton RS, Sudbrak R, Wen G, Jones MC, Hurles ME, Andrews TD, Scott CE, Searle S, Ramser J, Whittaker A, Deadman R, Carter NP, Hunt SE, Chen R, Cree A, Gunaratne P, Havlak P, Hodgson A, Metzker ML, Richards S, Scott G, Steffen D, Sodergren E, Wheeler DA, Worley KC, Ainscough R, Ambrose KD, Ansari-Lari MA, Aradhya S, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Ballabio A, Banerjee R, Barker GE, Barlow KF, Barrett IP, Bates KN, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Beck A, Bethel G, Blechschmidt K, Brady N, Bray-Allen S, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Brown MJ, Bonnin D, Bruford EA, Buhay C, Burch P, Burford D, Burgess J, Burrill W, Burton J, Bye JM, Carder C, Carrel L, Chako J, Chapman JC, Chavez D, Chen E, Chen G, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chinault C, Ciccodicola A, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Clerc-Blankenburg K, Clifford K, Cobley V, Cole CG, Conquer JS, Corby N, Connor RE, David R, Davies J, Davis C, Davis J, Delgado O, Deshazo D, Dhami P, Ding Y, Dinh H, Dodsworth S, Draper H, Dugan-Rocha S, Dunham A, Dunn M, Durbin KJ, Dutta I, Eades T, Ellwood M, Emery-Cohen A, Errington H, Evans KL, Faulkner L, Francis F, Frankland J, Fraser AE, Galgoczy P, Gilbert J, Gill R, Glockner G, Gregory SG, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gu Y, Gwilliam R, Hamilton C, Hart EA, Hawes A, Heath PD, Heitmann K, Hennig S, Hernandez J, Hinzmann B, Ho S, Hoffs M, Howden PJ, Huckle EJ, Hume J, Hunt PJ, Hunt AR, Isherwood J, Jacob L, Johnson D, Jones S, de Jong PJ, Joseph SS, Keenan S, Kelly S, Kershaw JK, Khan Z, Kioschis P, Klages S, Knights AJ, Kosiura A, Kovar-Smith C, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leversha M, Lewis L, Liu W, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loulseged H, Loveland JE, Lovell JD, Lozado R, Lu J, Lyne R, Ma J, Maheshwari M, Matthews LH, McDowall J, McLaren S, McMurray A, Meidl P, Meitinger T, Milne S, Miner G, Mistry SL, Morgan M, Morris S, Muller I, Mullikin JC, Nguyen N, Nordsiek G, Nyakatura G, O'Dell CN, Okwuonu G, Palmer S, Pandian R, Parker D, Parrish J, Pasternak S, Patel D, Pearce AV, Pearson DM, Pelan SE, Perez L, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Reichwald K, Rhodes S, Ridler KA, Schlessinger D, Schueler MG, Sehra HK, Shaw-Smith C, Shen H, Sheridan EM, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Sotheran EC, Steingruber HE, Steward CA, Storey R, Swann RM, Swarbreck D, Tabor PE, Taudien S, Taylor T, Teague B, Thomas K, Thorpe A, Timms K, Tracey A, Trevanion S, Tromans AC, d'Urso M, Verduzco D, Villasana D, Waldron L, Wall M, Wang Q, Warren J, Warry GL, Wei X, West A, Whitehead SL, Whiteley MN, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams G, Williams L, Williamson A, Williamson H, Wilming L, Woodmansey RL, Wray PW, Yen J, Zhang J, Zhou J, Zoghbi H, Zorilla S, Buck D, Reinhardt R, Poustka A, Rosenthal A, Lehrach H, Meindl A, Minx PJ, Hillier LW, Willard HF, Wilson RK, Waterston RH, Rice CM, Vaudin M, Coulson A, Nelson DL, Weinstock G, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Gibbs RA, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. Nature. 2005 Mar 17;434(7031):325-37.

Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J]; MGC Project Team. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7.